Particles are Lagrangian points that can access continuous positions across the fluid lattice. They are used to model scalar transport processes, residence times, particle trajectories, and particle suspensions.
When assigned a finite density and diameter, particle positions and velocities evolve according to Newton’s Second Law using a Verlet algorithm. Included in the force summation are (i) the fluid drag, (ii) gravity, (iii) buoyancy, and (iv) particle collision forces (unless deactivated by the user).
The fluid drag force is velocity dependent and follows experimentally derived sphere drag data. When assigned zero density or zero diameter, particles are modeled as massless tracers with positions advanced each iteration according to the local and instantaneous fluid velocity.
Massless particles realize no particle-particle interactions. For particles with finite diameters and mass, particle-particle interactions are modeled as elastic hard-sphere collisions. Users can choose to deactivate particle-particle interactions for particles with mass. Deactivating the particle-particle interaction reduces the computational burden associated with particle tracking.
Upon entering the system (either through a particle cuboid domain or an inlet), each particle is assigned a unique particle ID, a birth timestamp, a diameter, and an origin ID. The birth timestamp identifies the time-step at which a particle entered the system. This value is particularly useful in predicting residence times and mean-age. The origin ID describes where a particle entered the system (through which inlet or which cuboid particle domain). This value is particularly useful in predicting how particles from various sources blend in the system. It is also useful in predicting how particles with different properties (e.g. density, diameter, origin) are affected by agitation and fluid motion (assuming different particle properties are assigned to different particle origins). The particle output files contain the instantaneous positions and velocities of all particles in the system along with their associated particleID, birth timestamp, origin ID, and diameter.
Particle output files are printed at the same frequency as output slices.
Particle trajectories and interactions are managed by the processor that owns the region of space occupied by the particle. As such, if many particles are initially injected into the system inside a small volume, all particle trajectories and interactions will be evaluated by a single processor. This behavior may noticeably reduce the simulation runtime. As particles spread through the domain, the computational burden will be distributed about the core pool and the runtime will improve.
- Box Type
The Box Type specifies the nature of the particle box. Five different box types are available:
Sink: remove all particles that enter the box
Source: maintain minimum user-defined particle population inside box
Dump: dump user-defined number of particles into the box
Tracker: record the time-evolution of the particle population inside the box
Feed: continuously feed particles into the box at a user-defined rate
- Dump Value
Number of particles injected into the box.
- Source Value
Minimum population to be maintained in the box. Particles will be added to the box until it reaches this user-defined source value. Particles will not be added to the box if the population inside the box equals or exceeds this value. Particles will not be removed from over-populated boxes.
- Feed Value
Rate at which to inject particles into the box, in terms of particles per second. Particles are injected at this rate, regardless of the current box population
- Initial Velocity
Initial velocity vector of the particles injected into the box [m/s].
- Start Time
Time at which to begin particle addition [s].
- Stop Time
Time at which to stop particle addition [s].
- Particle Density
Density of the particles, [kg/m 3 ]
- Box Lower Corner
Bounding box lower corner [Model units] The lower corner of the bounding box used to define a particle box.
- Box Upper Corner
Bounding box lower corner [Model units] The upper corner of the bounding box used to define a particle box.
- Particle Size Distribution
This parameter allows the particle size to be randomly chosen from one of the following distributions at run-time.
Single: Single value
Uniform: Randomly chosen between min max values defined
Normal: Randomly chosen from distribution function defined by mean and standard deviation
Log Normal: Randomly chosen from distribution function defined by mean and standard deviation
Rayleigh: Randomly chosen from distribution function defined by the scale parameter
- Particle Breakup Model
This parameter allows particles to break up according to a user defined expression
Particle Breakup: Enables the break up model
- Particle Min Diameter
Minimum diameter that can be acheived through the break up. Particles smaller than this value will not break up
- Particle Breakup Probability Expression
Probability expression as a function of diameter “d” [meters], and a strain-rate “s” [1/s] The local strain rate for each particle is evaluated, and this particle breakup probability is calculated. A random number between 0 and 1 is then sampled. If this random number is smaller than the particle breakup probability, the particle splits into two equal-sized daughter particles in a manner that conserves mass. Refer to User Defined Expression Syntax for syntax examples.
- Wall Model
Wall interaction model
Stick - particles will stick to the wall
- Two Way Coupling
Enable/Disable two-way particle-fluid coupling
With two-way coupling activated, momentum is transferred from the particles to the fluid.
- Compute Particle Collisions
When checked, particles from this box interact and collide with other inertial particles.
- Export Enabled
Effectively turns the particle box on/off in the solver input file